The treatment of CVID is similar to that of other disorders with low levels of serum immunoglobulins. In the absence of a significant T-lymphocyte defect or organ damage, immunoglobulin replacement therapy almost always brings improvement of symptoms. Immunoglobulin is extracted from a large pool of human plasma; it consists mostly of IgG and contains all the important antibodies present in the normal population.
Patients with chronic sinusitis or chronic lung disease may also require long-term treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. If mycoplasma or other chronic infections are suspected, antibiotics specific for those organisms may be indicated. If bronchiectasis has developed, a daily pulmonary toilet regimen (chest physiotherapy and postural drainage) may be needed to mobilize the secretions from the lungs and bronchi and make them easier to cough up.
Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption should be evaluated for the presence of Giardia lamblia, rotavirus and a variety of other gastrointestinal infections. In some cases inflammatory bowel disease is found, and this is treated by the medications normally prescribed for patients who are non-immunodeficient. Maintaining a balance between the immunosuppression used to control the autoimmune process while avoiding compounding the defects of the underlying primary immunodeficiency requires close cooperation between the patient and the various specialists involved in their care. If autoimmune or inflammatory disease, granulomas, or tumors develop, the treatment is usually the same as would be given to a person with a normal immune system. However when patients with CVID have these complications, there is a tendency for them to be less responsive to therapy. Regular checkups including lung function are recommended.